Palladium is a chemical element of the platinum group, which includes nickel, platinum, darmstadt and palladium. It was not discovered until the early 19th century. The name is derived from the Greek goddess Pallas.
The price of aluminum for a gram
Aluminum is listed on many stock exchanges in the world. Most often its price is in US dollars, but it also happens to quote aluminum in yuan or Indian rupees. The price of aluminum on the world’s stock markets is usually quoted per ton.
Metal on the world’s stock exchanges is offered through futures contracts so we can hedge against the risk of price changes of this metal or speculate on future movements. Some brokers offer CFD contracts on aluminum. With CFD we can speculate on price changes without physically buying the metal.
Shanghai Futures Exchange (SHFE) is a futures exchange. It is regulated by the China Securities Regulatory Commission (CSRC). At present, the exchange offers futures contracts for commodities such as gold, silver, copper, aluminum, lead, steel reinforcing bar, steel rod, natural rubber, fuel oil and zinc.
The Multi Commodity Exchange of India Limited (MCX) is a commodity derivatives exchange located in India. The stock market started operation in November 2003. It is regulated by the Securities and Exchange Commission of India (SEBI). Aluminum on MCX is quoted in rupees per ton.
Pure aluminum is not found in nature. Metal remained largely unknown until the nineteenth century. The creation of aluminum using electricity was first developed in 1886 by C. M. Hall and P. Heroult. The envisioned way is used today.
Aluminum production begins with the extraction of bauxite, rich in aluminum minerals. Approximately 90% of global bauxite supply is in tropical areas.
Bauxite is crushed, dried and ground in special mills to obtain alumina and then mixed with a small amount of water. This process produces a thick paste that is collected in special containers and steamed to remove most of the silicon present in the bauxite.
The largest companies involved in the extraction and production of aluminum
UC Rusal is a Russian company founded in 2000. After merging with Siberian-Urals Aluminum Company (SUAL) and acquiring the assets of Glencore, a Swiss joint stock company founded under the name of Marc Rich & Co., UC Rusal has become the leader in the aluminum industry. At present, the company has 15 steel mills, 12 alumina refineries and 8 bauxite mines. The company is headquartered in Moscow. The company is listed on the Moscow Stock Exchange (MCX), The Stock Exchange of Hong Kong Limited (SEHK) and Euronext.
Alcoa Inc. is the world’s second largest aluminum company. This American company was founded in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania in 1888 and currently operates in 31 countries around the world. The company owns 25 aluminum mills, which accounts for about 7% of global production. The company’s core assets include Fjardaal Iceland, Alcoa World Alumina and Chemicals, Baie Comeau and Becancour, Canada, San Cibrao and Newburgh, Ferndale, and Rockdale (Texas). At present, the company is headquartered in New York. The company is listed on the New York Stock Exchange (NYSE).
China Power Investment Corp. ranks fourth in the world in terms of aluminum production. It is a state-owned company involved in many industries, power generation, coal mining, aluminum production, railways and ports. It was established in 2002 and its main aluminum companies are Ningxia Qingtongxia Energy and Aluminum and CPI Aluminum International Trading Co. Ltd. The Company is not listed on the Stock Exchange.
Rio Tinto Alcan Inc. ranks fifth in the world ranking of aluminum companies. Rio Tinto is a British-Australian company headquartered in London and Melbourne, Australia. The company’s name comes from the Spanish River Rio Tinto. In 1873 Scottish industrialist Hugh Matheson assembled a group of financiers to purchase the Rio Tinto mine from the Spanish government. Rio Tinto Alcan Inc., a subsidiary of Rio Tinto, is based in Montreal, Canada. The Company owns and operates bauxite mines and alumina refineries in Brazil, Australia, Guinea and Canada. Major aluminum mills are located in Canada (8 mills), Cameroon, France, Iceland, Norway and the Middle East. To power its mill, Rio Tinto has 11 power stations that provide 36% of energy. It is listed on the London Stock Exchange (LSE).
Norsk Hydro ASA is currently the sixth place in the world ranking. It is a Norwegian company producing aluminum and refined aluminum products. The company employs 22,000 people worldwide. Norsk has factories in Rjuken, Raufoss, Vennesla, Karmoy, Hoyanger, Ardal, Sunndalsora, Holmestrand and Magnor (all in Norway). Headquartered in Oslo. The company is listed on the Oslo Stock Exchange and on the OTC Markets Group, which offers securities on the OTC market.
Aluminum production in individual countries in 2014 (in thousands of tonnes)
- China – 23 300
- Russia – 3 500
- Canada – 2 940
- India – 2 100
- United States – 1 720
- Australia – 1 680
- Norway – 1 200
- Brazil – 960
- Bahrain – 930
Use of aluminum
Aluminum is flexible, durable and lightweight, and these are just some of its advantages that make this metal a popular choice for many different applications.
Aluminum is lightweight, strong and resistant to corrosion and cracking. But to make aluminum even more powerful, it must be mixed with a small amount of other metals. When mixed in appropriate proportions, the strength of aluminum can be comparable to steel, but its weight is only one third of the weight of steel.
Therefore, aluminum alloy is a mixture of aluminum and other metals. Aluminum alloys are usually made to enhance the properties of the material. The most commonly used metals in aluminum alloys are magnesium, silicon, manganese, zinc and copper. Aluminium alloys are often used in structures and components where light weight and corrosion resistance are required.
Precise tubes are often used in heat transfer applications, in other words, to transfer heat from one location to another. These applications are used in motor vehicles, refrigerators and air conditioning, ventilation, solar energy and heating systems.
Rolled products, for example aluminum foil, can be so thin that its thickness will be only 6 microns. Aluminum foil is used for food packaging, pharmaceuticals and technical applications. The foil can be varnished, laminated and coated using a variety of techniques. In addition, foils, tapes, sheets and plates are used in the automotive, transportation, building and shipbuilding industries, as well as in the mechanical, electrical, home, printing and packaging industries.
Aluminum is used in a wide range of products, including cans, films, kitchenware, window frames and aircraft and car parts. Versatility is associated with its particular characteristics. Aluminum has a low density, is non-toxic, has high thermal conductivity, has excellent corrosion resistance and can be easily cast, machined and molded. It is the second most plastic metal after gold.
It is often used as an alloy because aluminum itself is not strong enough. It uses with copper, manganese, magnesium and silicon. They are often used in the construction of aircraft and other means of transport.
Aluminum is a good electrical conductor and is often used in electrical transmission lines. It is cheaper than copper and its weight is almost twice as low. In addition, the aluminum coatings reflect light and heat, so they have many uses, including telescopic mirrors, decorative paper, packaging and toys.
Huge use makes it an extremely useful metal used in many different industries. It is difficult to imagine the further development of civilization without this important raw material. Fortunately, in the 19th century, how can you get aluminum through the use of electricity. This enabled the use of aluminum to create many devices without which it is now hard to imagine the modern world. We are slowly starting to discover new, even better materials such as graphene. However, the current technology does not allow for the comprehensive use of graphene, so probably aluminum will be an indispensable material used by people for a long time.